The record-breaking participation to the signing ceremony of the Paris Agreement held in New York on April, 22nd 2016, marks a first important step towards its entry into force. Yet, challenges remain for turning commitments into action. This article explores key limitations that Parties will need to address in the upcoming years.
The COP21 meeting in Paris concluded on a positive note, but the agreed to measures remain based on non-binding commitments. Here, Raymond Saner suggests that the treaty power of the WTO could be used to generate the green investments and production needed to successfully implement climate change mitigation and adaptation at global level.
What is energy? Why are we so interested in energy and why is it so important? FEEM researcher Samuel Carrara answers these questions by explaining the concept of energy, the relationship between energy and economic development, and the key issues of energy availability and security, sustainable development and climate change.
Based on an amusing “The Low Carbon Grandma” case study (a grandma who heats her home only sparingly and uses a bike to move around, but flies back and forth from the US four times in a year to visit her grandchildren), senior researcher Valentina Bosetti explains why “Life is a Balancing Act”.
Energy efficiency is one of the key crossroads between energy, climate and economic issues. This column explores the potential for energy efficiency gains in Turkey, a country characterized by a strong growth in energy demand and by a strong need of better security of supply, emissions reduction and economic competitiveness.
What are the new challenges and opportunities for European gas markets? Leading energy experts interviewed on the occasion of the fourth edition of FEEM's annual "Gas Talks" provide their views on the current situation and shed light on a potential way forward, spanning from COP21 to shifting geopolitical balances.
What are the main features of the new global climate agreement adopted in Paris at COP21? This Re3 article examines the new climate deal, hailed as a turning point in climate negotiations, paying particular attention to mitigation, cooperative approaches, adaptation and loss & damage, climate finance, compliance and review mechanisms.
In many water scarce regions, the damage incurred by droughts is inflating irrigation withdrawals and driving agriculture into competition with environmental uses. Crop insurance can take on the role of (unsustainable) water withdrawals to mitigate drought impact. Re3 publishes a video on the role of insurance in drought prone areas.
The Encyclical Letter of Pope Francis, "Laudato si'", addresses for the first time in the Church's history the subject of the protection of the environment. In this article Andrea Tilche, scientist and science manager, and Antonello Nociti, writer and philosopher, analyze and discuss this complex document.
Re3 is pleased to publish the video of the side event "Transparency, Policy Surveillance and Levels of Effort” held at the COP21 venue in Paris. The event was co-organized by FEEM, the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth and Resources for the Future.
Re3 is pleased to publish the video of the side event "Multi-level Climate Governance: an integrated Analysis of National, Regional and Local Policies” held at the COP21 venue in Paris along with a few comments on the debate. The event was co-organized by FEEM, IEFE and University of Edinburgh.
The Italian Scientific Community calls policy makers, international and national institutions, financial sectors, private sector, the public opinion to take action on climate change. Re3 is pleased to publish the Scientific Statement on Climate Change signed by 12 Scientific Societies and Associations presented at the Rome2015 – Science Symposium On Climate.
Voluntary CO2 emission cuts announced so far by States are not enough to stay on target and avoid trespassing the 2° threshold. Better land management and degraded lands recovery could contribute one fourth of the gap, in a cost effective way and with extremely consistent mitigation and adaptation co-benefits.
This year, for the first time ever, nearly all of the world’s countries are making pledges to help limit future climate change. The new CEPR_FERDI eBook "Towards a Workable and Effective Climate Regime" looks into what needs to be done to build a climate regime that is both workable and effective.
Over the last years EU energy policy has strongly focused on the development of renewable energy, also through the adoption of a dedicated 2020 target. But is the EU currently on track to meet this target? This article aims to provide a quick overview on the issue, looking at both the EU-wide and the national levels of analysis.
What can we do to change our impact on our planet? In this video lesson Massimo Tavoni, Deputy Coordinator of the Climate Change and Sustainable Research Programme, shows us some simple steps we can take to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the risks associated with climate change.
In this article FEEM energy analysts Manfred Hafner and Simone Tagliapietra present the key results of a new study, just published in the FEEM Series "Note di Lavoro", aimed at exploring the future role of natural gas in the EU decarbonisation path.
This article draws from “Pathways to Deep Decarbonization in Italy”, the Italian Country Report published within the “Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP)”, an initiative of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network and the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations. The report contributes to the national debate on climate change mitigation and decarbonization.
How to close the gap between science and policy? Why does science need to communicate better? André Jol, EEA Head of the Climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation group, and Connie Hedegaard, former European commissioner for climate action, share their views on these two important issues in exclusive interviews to Re3.
The United Nations General Assembly discussed and approved the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) during the UN Sustainable Development Summit held in New York on September 25-27, 2015. FEEM Research Director, Prof. Carlo Carraro, briefly presents the preliminary results of FEEM’s APPS – Assessment, Projections and Policy for Sustainable Development Goals - project.
In a short video, Prof. Francesco Bosello explains the motivation of the paper "Catastrophic Risk, Precautionary Abatement, and Adaptation Transfers", which contributes to the normative literature on mitigation and adaptation by framing the question of their optimal policy balance in the context of catastrophic climate risk.
The three young winners of the 2015 FEEM Award, Keshav Dogra, Anne-Katrin Roesler and Jörg L. Spenkuch, explain the motivations behind their papers. The topics range from the euro debt crisis and the rational inattention theory to the backward reasoning hypothesis in sequential games and applied to the US Senate.
While Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) mitigation provides important climate and societal benefits in the near-term, its implications for achieving the 2°C target have been studied to a lesser extent. This article reviews some recent literature on the topic with the aim of complementing and directing policy debate with the latest scientific evidence.
In the latest volume released by FEEM Press, Professor Jean Christophe Iseux von Pfetten offers a rare and fascinating glimpse into China in terms of its leadership structure and policies, economic and social prospects as well as its world power projection, with the aim to better understand this country.
The Water-Energy-Food Nexus addresses the interrelated nature of global natural resource systems. This article aims to better understand interactions between natural environment and human activities, and to suggest a more coordinated management and use of natural resources facing climate change and population growth challenges, along with solutions and best practices.
This article examines key features and compliance of China’s pilot carbon trading schemes and lessons learned. Insights are offered into the design, implementation and compliance of China’s carbon trading pilots along with potential pathways to help them work reliably and effectively, smoothing the transition toward a national carbon trading scheme.
Re3 publishes the interview and excerpts from the keynote speech delivered by Nobel Prize laureate Muhammad Yunus, founder of Grameen Bank, on the occasion of the workshop “Convergence between profit and not for profit to achieve sustainable value. Perspectives from the Social Enterprise World Forum 2015”, held in Milan on July 3, 2015.
The workshop on “Recent evolutions of oil and commodity prices”, organized by FEEM, focused on the decline in the oil price in 2014. This is explained by a complex set of factors. It had implications on forecasting the price of oil and on oil price volatility and uncertainty, which increased.
Following the International Conference on “The Recent Evolutions of Oil and Commodity Prices” organized by FEEM on 4-5 June, 2015 Re3 interviews energy experts Leo Drollas, Vincent Kaminski, Lutz Kilian, Charles F. Mason, Apostolos Serletis and Adonis Yatchew on the drop in oil prices and their research on this issue.
We discuss the concepts of macroeconomic uncertainty, oil price uncertainty and oil price shocks. Given the relevance of oil and macroeconomic uncertainty, we illustrate how economic uncertainty can be defined and measured. We describe our proposed measure of oil price uncertainty and we illustrate the contribution of its underlying components.
What are the origins and implications of the Arab Spring? How did the global economic crisis impact on the geostrategic order? The new volume “Global Challenges and the Emerging World Order” by Professor Giulio Sapelli, University of Milan and FEEM, offers an unconventional overview of the challenges posed by the world’s new geostrategic order.
The assessment of potential economic damage caused by floods is commonly done via methodologies based on Stage-Damage Curves (SDC), which provide a relation between the depth of water and the economic damage on a specific land use. Here a refined SDC model is tested against empirical data from a flood event in Northern Italy.
In this article FEEM energy analysts Manfred Hafner and Simone Tagliapietra present the key results of a new study, just published in the FEEM Series "Note di Lavoro", aimed at analysing the rise of the Turkish Stream project and at investigating what strategy Europe might assume vis-à-vis this new reality.
Italy is prone to natural hazards and disaster risk due to its natural conformation. Limited risk prevention and uncontrolled urban expansion contribute to amplifying such risks. Recent FEEM & CMCC research has empirically tested for the first time in Italy, the potential impacts of climate change on the regional economy.
Preventing climate change is one of the priorities of the European Union. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions and to help fight climate change. Re3 is pleased to announce the release of an animated short film by the EU-funded ENTRACTE project to help raise awareness on this topic.
The 2008 crisis exposed the vulnerability of all major economies to financial events beyond their control. The scope, speed and severity of the crisis drove world economies to cooperate on all items of the financial regulatory agenda. This article analyses how the financial crisis affected EU financial regulation for commodities.
Re3 is pleased to publish the full text of the Final Declaration of Religious Leaders, Political Leaders, Business Leaders, Scientists and Development Practitioners who participated in the workshop entitled "Protect the Earth, Dignify Humanity" hosted by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences of the Roman Catholic Church on April 28, 2015.
The development of unconventional gas extraction has led to significant declines in gas prices, recently followed by a large drop of oil prices. This is also the year which is supposed to deliver the long awaited post 2020 climate agreement. This article brings different pieces of research together, delving on both issues.
Despite huge solar and wind energy potential, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries lag far behind most other regions in the world in terms of solar and wind energy deployment. The article explores the reasons of this paradox, focusing on the key barriers to the development of renewable energy in the region.
Stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to safe levels will require, at least in the longer run, some kind of technological revolution. This new volume “Innovation under Uncertainty”, edited by FEEM researchers Valentina Bosetti and Michela Catenacci, presents original research and insights on the uncertain future of carbon-free energy technologies.
Given that climate change is and will continue to impact regions in different ways, migration from the areas most exposed to climate change needs to be considered. Fostering a better understanding of climate-related migration will also be a fundamental step in securing the future stability of our planet and action on poverty reduction.
From March 14 to 18, representatives of 187 state governments and around 6,500 delegates from inter- and non-government organizations, UN entities, academic and private sector institutions gathered to debate a new international agreement on disaster risk reduction, one that would replace the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015.
This article addresses one of the main threats for the marine ecosystem: Ocean Acidification. Caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, it affects the whole marine ecosystem. To cope with it and lower its negative socio-economic effects, it is necessary to adopt a comprehensive adaptation strategy to enforce resilience and reduce local stressors.
On 14 January 2015 international scholars and experts convened in Milan for the International Conference on “Water and Development”. Re3 publishes a selection of the presentations showing how demographic trends, energy development and needs, the water-energy nexus, climate change, and water geostrategic challenges are all interconnected.
On February 18-20, 2015, twenty-four experts gathered in Berlin to explore approaches to improving the process by which research on climate change is assessed. Re3 publishes the memo that Carlo Carraro (FEEM), Charles Kolstad (Stanford University), and Robert Stavins (Harvard Kennedy School), have prepared drawing from the workshop.
Complex environmental problems such as climate change require both an understanding of the environmental drivers and knowledge of the feedbacks between resource dynamics and human activity. The socio-economic dynamics, in turn, call for an investigation of the behavioral drivers. A multidisciplinary approach, while not sufficient, is necessary to address complexity.
Climate change negotiations in the framework of the UNFCCC are expected to lead to the adoption of an international agreement at the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties in Paris at the end of 2015. In this short video, environmental law expert Francesca Romanin Jacur looks into this complex process.
Re3 publishes the interviews with the winners of the FEEM 2014 Award, which periodically rewards new ideas and innovative research in economics by young scholars. The interviews span a wide variety of topics, from the case of Fukushima to labour market reforms and whether financial incentives affect fertility.
Re3 publishes the insight by Carlo Carraro, Suneel Pandey and Steven Stone drawn from the Green Growth Knowledge Platform blog, on the use of fiscal policy to achieve economic, social and environmental goals - highlighting examples in the energy, water and transport sectors and outlining the challenges.
In this brief interview granted to Re3, Guido Santini from FAO illustrates the main spheres of actions of its Land&Water division, and in particular the effective investment planning tool developed to support countries struggling with water scarcity, most notably in Sub Saharan Africa.
Energy has always been linked to the history of mankind and human development. The publication presented in this review, “Global challenges, integrated solutions: a cooperation matrix against energy poverty”, aims at offering guidelines and proposals to support all the actors involved in the process of improving access to energy.
Nature Climate Change releases today one of the most comprehensive assessments of the timing and amount of greenhouse gas emissions for each of the world's major economies, considering both currently discussed pledges and scenarios that limit future temperature rise to 2°C. Main key messages of the study led by FEEM are presented in a set of three short videos.
Re3 is pleased to report the latest on the Annual Convention of FEEM and the Euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (CMCC). View the 2-minute video for a quick overview or listen to the interviews for a summary of the topics addressed in the keynote speeches.
Leading international energy experts, convened in Milan for the 3rd edition of FEEM’s Gas Talks (20-21 November, 2014), discuss mid- to long-term challenges and opportunities for European gas markets. FEEM researchers Manfred Hafner and Simone Tagliapietra report and comment the highlights of the meeting.
What are the effects of environmental regulation on the production decisions and profits of polluting and green firms? This article summarizes the findings of two papers and highlights the role that firm heterogeneity plays in determining firm preferences towards environmental regulation.
How can games be used to solve the climae stalemate? In this short interview Alessandro Tavoni, research fellow at the Grantham Research Institute of the LSE and associate researcher at FEEM, gives practical examples on how experimental games can be integrated into more traditional lines of research on coalition formation and stability.
What are the future prospects of a new "EU Energy Union"? After the 2014 Ukraine crisis, momentum has emerged around the need to create a truly European energy policy. This article argues that the EU should seize this historical opportunity to advance its energy policy, focusing on security of energy supply.
Re3 is pleased to publish this comment by Franklin Allen, Nippon Life Professor of Finance and Economics, The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, to the paper "Illiquidity and all its Friends" by Nobel laureate Jean Tirole, prior to its publication in the Journal of Economic Literature in 2011.
Jacopo Bonan, Catholic University of Milan and LabExpo, Giangiacomo Feltrinelli Foundation, comments a selection of interviews to leading experts Ujjayant Chakravorty, Shonali Pachauri, Carlo Carraro, Stefano Bologna and Lucius Mayer-Tasch, collected during the International Workshop “Energy Poverty and Energy Access: Global Challenges and Goals" held in Milan on July 10, 2014.
In this short interview, Thomas Stocker, IPCC WGI co-chair, discusses basic but important aspects of the physics of climate, which are often misunderstood by the public at large, focusing in particular on the 2°C target for global temperature rise.
Concentrated solar power generation in Africa and the Middle East could potentially supply up to 20% of European power demand. However, it is currently much more expensive than fossil fuels and geo-political challenges need to be overcome. This article evaluates the technological, economic, and political feasibility of this idea.
A man-induced unbalance in nature could trigger an unbalance in human society that will re-impact nature and paralyze human response, initiating a potentially global, catastrophic cycle. What risks might we have to face? This article discusses the conception of a standard analysis approach to harness the complexity of global warming.
Interviewed by Re3, Francisco H. G. Ferreira - World Bank Chief Economist Africa Region and Research Fellow at the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA, Bonn) - discusses development policies in Africa, human capital empowerment and how to deal with religious and cultural conflicts and promote nation-building processes.
This article by FEEM researchers Francesco Bosello and Ramiro Parrado addresses one specific criticism that can be raised against economic climate change impact assessments conducted with Computable General Equilibrium models: that of overly optimistic assumptions about markets’ ability to react to climate change induced shocks, i.e. market-driven adaptation.
The “Green Paradox” theory subverts the traditional theoretical foundation of environmental policies. The question is whether the green paradox holds and how large the impact is, which has provoked debate among economists. Based on theoretical and empirical results this article tries to provide an unbiased evaluation of the theory.
What are the future prospects of EU-Turkey energy relations in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukraine crisis? This article summarizes the key results of a new study that outlines the urgent need to enhance the EU-Turkey energy partnership and proposes the establishment of a new “EU-Turkey Natural Gas Initiative”.
Current climate change policy focused on resilience, while effective, can acquire more depth with a health focus. How though, is the question? The social determinants of health can act as a guide for resilience-focused policy. The article reports the findings of a content analysis and a survey of 51 cities.
This article reports that indeed workers in the public sector are more likely to engage in socially motivated activities than their private sector counterparts. However, this is so just because the public services employ people with higher education and skills, characteristics that increase the likelihood of being socially engaged.
The jihadist group formerly known as ISIS, which already controls vast areas of Syria and Iraq, has recently proclaimed the restoration of the caliphate. This article discusses the presence of a jihadist state in the Middle East, which represents a formidable threat to the Arab state system.
In this article based on his recent lecture in FEEM, Anatol Lieven, King’s College London, explores the crisis in Ukraine, a country torn apart by ethnic strains and nationalism that has dramatically become a focal point of the international agenda, the real epicenter of European, United States and Russian negotiations.
Comparing the cost of batteries used in passenger vehicles can be problematic. This article aims to clarify some of the issues that have led to confusion when discussing the cost of batteries. Recently, confusion over both the current price and a break-through price of batteries has prevailed.
Focusing on water security and its link with sustainable development, the article identifies key drivers and stressors to both natural freshwater availability and national demand in the Windward Caribbean island states, evaluating how climate change and development may affect them.
How can we achieve international cooperation for enforceable treaties? How should such treaties be structured? How effective would polycentric approaches be in reaching solutions? These are among the topics discussed during the workshop on Climate Change and Public Goods on June 9-10 by Valentina Bosetti, Carlo Carraro, Astrid Dannenberg, Partha Dasgupta, Ottmar Edenhoffer, Michael Finus, Philipp M. Hannam, Bard Harstad, Michael Hoel, Simon Levin , and Alessandro Tavoni. Here is a brief recap of the main lessons learned.
John M. Deutch – Emeritus Institute Professor at the MIT - addresses the consequences related to the unconventional oil revolution, focusing on US foreign policy, the driving forces leading towards a new world energy balance, the role of new players in a renewed energy scenario and the political, sociological and geostrategic dynamics.
Bård Harstad received the 2013 Erik Kempe Award for his novel and insightful contribution to the study of international environmental policy in his paper “Buy Coal! A Case for Supply-Side Environmental Policy". In a short video, he explains to Re3 the logics behind his theory, and possibly why the jury chose this paper for the award.
The National Rugby League (NRL) competition provides an interesting example for an analysis of home team advantage as many of the Sydney teams in the NRL share stadiums. This article discusses recent work conducted by Longden and Kannard (2014) that confirms that playing at a traditional Sydney stadium does provide an advantage.
The concept of environmental capital is thoroughly entrenched in policy discussions but largely missing from mainstream economic curriculums. This article argues that environmental externalities, climate change, and constraints on natural resources will constantly and deeply affect humankind’s future. The teaching of economics, especially growth economics, should stop ignoring them.
A salary cap has been in place in one of Australia’s most popular professional sports since 1990. Since 2001 there have been multiple cases where rugby league teams were found to have notably violated the salary cap. This article discusses recent work conducted to calculate the impact of these violations.
The Bali agreement last December has given new hopes that the WTO is not dead. But does the announcement that negotiations on the reductions of tariffs on environmental goods are to resume really give hope? This note argues that unless the field of negotiations is widened, the initiative will not help much.
In this new video, Italian Lead Authors Carlo Carraro, Alessandro Lanza and Massimo Tavoni summarise the main issues tackled by the third volume of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, dedicated to the mitigation of climate change.
Estimates of future damages from climate change in coastal areas are of growing interest for climate change research and policy-making. The article describes a newly-developed methodology applied to estimate total insured coastal damages with climate change for the period 2025-2085 in New York State, USA.
Italian authors of the IPCC Report Francesco Bosello, Sergio Castellari and Riccardo Valentini explain the main issues tackled by the second volume of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, dedicated to climate change impacts. The video is introduced by Jonathan Lynn Head of Communications and Media Relations at IPCC.
Under scenarios of increasing urban expansion, environmental degradation and hazard exposure, the vulnerability of urban populations needs to be tackled through novel, integrated solutions. The article suggests that urban areas would benefit from a shift in perspective recognizing the connections between urban areas and watersheds.
This article summarizes the key results of a study aimed at analyzing Iran’s natural gas market outlook in the aftermath of a potential nuclear deal, looking at potential production trends and export options, but also at the political and commercial barriers that such a development will likely have to face.
Evidence from procurement and concession contracts shows that time overruns are widespread. This article summarizes two studies that investigate causes of time overruns in public procurement and concession contracts and determine the trade-off between the supplier’s option value to delay and the penalty fee to be paid for the delay.
Interviewed by Re3, Professor Robert O. Mendelsohn, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, discusses the effects of climate change on sectors such as Agriculture, Heating & Cooling, Sea Level Rise and the Water Cycle.
Are transfers from members living abroad a stimulus to a key sector such as schooling in Albania? The article summarizes the results of a study investigating which factors boost the household expenditure in education, with a special emphasis on the remittances sent to Albanian families from migrants living abroad.
The article discusses the creation of money in primitive populations at the beginning of economic activity, within a social environment where interpersonal trust, reciprocity and moral principles were prevalent. The analysis highlights the need to create a social environment based on these values for obtaining public happiness and sustainable development.
Rachel Croson's talk at EAERE 2013 discussed the origins and current state of this behavioral policy research, and highlighted open questions and opportunities for new explorations. In this short video-interview granted to Re3, she gives a summary overview of this relatively new field of study for neophites.
What is the state of the art of environmental indicators? What are the drawbacks of past approaches, the strengths of new methodologies and challenges ahead? This article is an overview of the final conference of the Environmental Indicators Workshop (December 2013) within the EU-FP7 project e-Frame, European Framework for Measuring Progress.
Users, stakeholders and decision makers need to reconsider their strategies, roles and perceptions in meeting the challenges confronted by diverse marine ecosystems, such as coral reefs. Moreover, what is urgently needed in benefit estimation of coral reef services is the interconnectedness of this ecosystem state to human welfare.
This article presents the key results of a field study carried out in Istanbul by FEEM researcher Simone Tagliapietra with the aim of exploring Turkey’s potential to become a regional gas hub by analyzing the future prospects of the Southern Gas Corridor and of the potential Eastern Mediterranean Gas Corridor.
After the Fukushima incident in 2011, many countries decided to revise their nuclear power programmes. Phasing out nuclear power would be costly, but the article shows that these costs would be largely offset by the implicit subsidy to R&D in renewables, which suffer from innovation externalities.
In their volume "The Globalization of Natural Gas Markets: New Challenges and Opportunities for Europe", Manfred Hafner and Simone Tagliapietra provide a comprehensive analysis of the challenges and opportunities of the global gas industry, with the aim to provide a clear snapshot of a market characterized by growing uncertainty and volatility.
In short interviews granted during the recent FEEM Gas Talks held in Milan on November 5-6, 2013, leading energy experts debate on European gas demand and supply and on the future of gas pricing and European gas governance, shedding light on a market characterized by growing uncertainty and volatility.
The path towards sustainability needs a deep cultural change, starting with the education of responsible citizens. In her recent book “Towards a Sustainable University” Chiara Mio describes a strategic and organizational sustainability approach in the context of universities, both from an academic literature perspective and from a real case example.
The last COP19/CMP9 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Warsaw, Poland on 11-22 November 2013. Re3 publishes a 4-minute interview with key experts to understand the goals and main results of the meeting.
Capital-based policies are more politically acceptable than a carbon price as they do not create immediate losers. However, they reduce emissions slower and need to be implemented sooner. Delaying their implementation may create a political-economy lock-in (easier-to-implement policies become unavailable) and an economic lock-in (the target becomes more expensive).
The "Methodologies and Indicators for Green Growth measurement" conference of November 12, 2013 assessed the state of the art in quantitative measurement of sustainability, and presented the updated findings of the FEEM SI Index 2013. Re3 hosts the interviews with the keynote speakers, their presentations and the video of the event.
The article focuses on the rise of a model of citizenship based on responsibility and awareness of emerging challenges. Citizens and firms become partners of a commitment aimed to generate a positive impact on society, and to transform the model of Business Sustainability into an innovative and modern paradigm.
IEW N. 2013.01
Water and Sewerage Industries
European Monetary Union
EU Energy Policy
Foreign Direct Investment